历届研讨会

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时间:2014-6-29 23:12:18

李平教授(Prof. Ping Li)

北京大学中文系学士、理论语言学硕士,荷兰Leiden大学心理语言学博士;心理学、语言学、信息科学及技术教授;宾夕法尼亚州立大学神经科学中心主任,美国心理计算学会主席等;Bilingualism: Language and Cognition主编,Frontiers in Language Science副主编,Journal of Cognitive Science编委 。研究兴趣包括认知神经科学、心理语言学、双语加工、语言习得的计算及神经机制等。

Neurocognitive and Computational Mechanisms of

Lexical Acquisition and Representation

Ping Li

Department of Psychology and Center for Language Science

Pennsylvania State University

 

How does a child rapidly acquire a vast number of words and develop a structured mental organization for them within the first years of life? How does a bilingual individual deal with the even more complicated task of learning and representing two lexicons? In this talk, I outline an approach based on our research that takes a dynamical perspective toward the lexicon, and discuss how this approach can be applied to account for lexical organization, structural representation, and dynamic competition within and across languages. In particular, I provide computational evidence based on the DevLex model, a self-organizing neural network model, and neuroimaging evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, to illustrate how children and adults learn and represent the lexicon in their first and second languages. Our computational and neuroimaging studies suggest that language-specific input, linguistic experience, and learner characteristics jointly contribute to the time course of learning and the neurocognitive representation of single and multiple languages. Our research sheds light on the cascading effects of early learning on later development and the child-adult differences in language acquisition.

莫雷教授(Prof. Lei Mo)

心理学教授,博士生导师。1988年在华南师范大学获心理学博士学位。现任中国心理学会理事长(侯任),国务院学位委员会学科评议组召集人,教育部社科委员、国家自然科学基金项目评审专家、教育部人文社科项目评审专家。莫雷主要研究方向是语言认知与学习心理。 

句法歧义消解过程中基于激发点的权变模型

Motivator-based contingency model in the resolution

of Syntactic ambiguity

莫雷 (Lei Mo)

华南师范大学

South China Normal University

 

在句法歧义研究的相关领域,一直并行存在着两种重要理论,一种是再分析模型,另外一种是竞争模型。

再分析模型的核心观点认为,读者在句子理解的早期加工阶段会参照限制性因素产生或选择一个分析作为初始分析,如果该初始分析与后续输入的语料发生违背,则读者会被迫放弃该初始分析,转而进行再分析,阅读困难随即产生。竞争模型的核心观点则认为,人们在消解句法歧义时会即时利用当下语料中所有可利用的限制性因素,平行激活各种可能的分析。读者在加工句法歧义句子时所遭遇到的阅读困难是由多种平行激活的被择分析之间的竞争引起的。

在竞争模型和再分析模型的理论及其各自实证研究的基础上,本研究提出,句子阅读中歧义消解过程,受到歧义激发点的制约,所谓歧义激发点,是指提示人们必须在不同的被择分析之间进行选择的信息点。当整个歧义句都没有歧义激发点,个体会按照初始自动化采用的意义进行理解,不会做任何消解歧义的加工;当歧义激发点在歧义区内出现,个体在歧义区就会即时发生歧义消解过程,平行激活各种可能的分析,符合竞争模型的设想;而当歧义激发点在歧义区之后的解歧区出现,个体在歧义区中没有即时发生歧义消解过程,直到解歧区的歧义激发点出现,才即时激发歧义消解活动,表现为再分析的歧义消解过程,符合再分析模型。

根据基于激发点的权变模型的设想,本研究系统设计了实验研究,分别应用英文语言材料与中文语言材料,探讨歧义激发点出现的三种情况下句子的歧义消解过程。实验结果表明,在无歧义激发点出现时,被试没有表现出歧义消解活动;在激发点与歧义区重合的情况下,被试表现出符合竞争模型设想的歧义消解过程;在激发点与解歧区重合的情况下,被试表现出符合再分析模型设想的歧义消解过程。

根据实验结果,本研究提出了句子歧义消解过程的基于激发点的权变模型。

 

关键词:句法歧义;再分析模型;竞争模型;激发点;权变模型

 

Two competing and largely incompatible classes of model dominate current sentence processing research. One is called Linear view, in which the processor makes initial decisions on the basis of strategies defined in terms of syntactic information alone and uses thematic information (such as determined by minimal attachment and late closure) (e.g., Ferreira & Clifton, 1986).According to this class, the processor computes syntactic analyses serially, in two stages. In the first stage, it draws on a restricted range of information to construct an initial analysis. During the second stage, it accesses other sources of information, which may sometimes cause it to abandon its initial analysis and compute another.

The second class of model assumes that the processor can activate multiple analyses in parallel. It employs both syntactic and nonsyntactic information in a single stage to foreground one analysis, but other analyses remain activated (e.g., MacDonald, 1994; Trueswell, Tanenhaus, & Garnsey, 1994), which is called Parallel view or competing model. The best known account of this class is the constraint-based model.

In the framework of the contingency model, which mechanism the subjects will explore to deal with the syntactic ambiguity corpus depends on the contingent properties of the ambiguity motivator. The so-called "ambiguity motivator" refers to the information point that promotes and forces people to make a choice between the alternative analysis. According to the contingent properties of the ambiguity motivator, there are three conditions in the resolution of syntactic ambiguity.

In the first case, the ambiguity motivator does not appear in any position of the corpus. In this case, the individual will generate an analysis based on their syntactic knowledge, context and their preference and so on. They won’t attempt to do any deep processing to resolute the ambiguity. In the second case, the ambiguity motivator appears in the ambiguity region of the corpus. In this case, people will use the competition mechanism to parse the ambiguity corpus. In the third case, the ambiguity motivator appears in the region of the disambiguation region of the corpus. In this case, people will select the reanalysis mechanism to parse the corpus of the disambiguation and the subsequent regions.

In current paper, according to the motivator-based contingency modelthe series of experiments were designed. Both the English syntactic ambiguity corpus and the Chinese syntactic ambiguity corpus were used to investigate the mechanism that people explored to process the ambiguity corpus in three conditions which composed of the absence of the ambiguity motivator, the ambiguity motivator in the disambiguation region and ambiguity motivator in the ambiguity region. The results of the experiments showed that when the ambiguity motivator didn’t appear in any region of the corpus, people would apply the mechanism that they used to parse the unambiguity corpus to process syntactic ambiguity coupus. When the ambiguity motivator appeared in the disambiguation region, people would adopt the reanalysis mechanism to parse the corpus of the disambiguiation and the subsequent region. When the ambiguity motivator appeared in the ambiguity region, people would select the competition mechanism to parse the ambiguity corpus.

 

Keywords: syntactic ambiguity; reanalysis model; competing model; ambiguity motivatorcontingency model

 


舒华教授(Prof.Hua Shu)

北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室教授、博士生导师。1991年在北京师范大学获教育学博士学位。主持了多项国家自然科学基金、霍英东青年教师基金、教育部科学技术重点项目、国家教育十五规划项目、北京市自然科学基金和国际合作基金项目。主要研究方向为儿童语言阅读发展及发展性阅读障碍研究、语言的认知神经机制研究。在国内外学术杂志上发表论文100余篇,2005年获教育部自然科学一等奖。

 

Typical and dyslexic development in learning to read Chinese

Hua Shu

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning

Beijing Normal University

 

Compared with research on alphabetic languages, research on reading acquisition and impairment in Chinese has a relatively short history. In the past of thirty years, lots of research has explored reading acquisition of Chinese children and the mechanism of developmental dyslexia in Chinese. However, many research questions related to the universal and specific properties of Chinese normal and dyslexic children are still unanswered.

In my talk, I will firstly describe some important features of Chinese language, and how these features influence reading acquisition of normal Chinese children. Then, I will summarize a series of studies on dyslexic development in learning to read Chinese, in which the critical cognitive deficits of Chinese dyslexic children and the underlying dysfunction were identified. Finally, a longitudinal study will be reviewed, in which the early predictors and developmental trajectories of reading acquisition and impairment in Chinese children were explored. Research has revealed that Chinese children with dyslexia are mainly suffered at the accuracy and speed of character or word recognition. Phonological awareness and naming-speed are the two deficits shared by both dyslexic children in Chinese and in alphabetic languages. Morphological and orthographic awareness are particularly important to consider in understanding Chinese reading development and dyslexia. The longitudinal studies reveal that it is possible to identify the school-age poor readers from early stage.

葉彩燕教授 (Prof. Virginia Yip)

葉彩燕教授于美國德州大學奧斯丁分校獲得語言學學士學位,並于南加州大學獲得博士學位。研究興趣包括: 雙語獲得、第二語言獲得、粵語、潮州話及中國語言比較語法、心理語言學及認知科學。著作包括: Interlanguage and Learnability: from Chinese to English (Benjamins出版社出版);合著了一系列關於粵語語法的書籍,如Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar (已有日語譯本) Basic Cantonese Intermediate Cantonese (Routledge出版社出版)。她的專題著作,The Bilingual Child: Early Development and Language Contact(與Stephen Matthews合著,由劍橋大學出版社出版)榮獲了美國語言學學會頒發的2009Leonard Bloomfield 圖書獎。

葉彩燕教授帶領其團隊創建了香港雙語兒童語料庫(the Hong Kong Bilingual Child Language Corpus),該語料庫是首個記錄粵英雙語兒童縱向發展的雙語語料庫,更是位於卡內基梅隆大學(Carnegie Mellon University)兒童語言研究資源交換系統(CHILDES) 中最大的雙語多媒體語料庫。葉彩燕教授是香港中文大學兒童雙語研究中心主任,同時擔任Bilingualism: Language and Cognition Second Language Research的編輯委員會委員。

 

One Child, Two Languages: Chinese Windows

 on Bilingual Development

Virginia Yip

Childhood Bilingualism Research Centre

Department of Linguistics and Modern Languages

Chinese University of Hong Kong

 

In the simultaneous acquisition of two languages, the relationship between the target languages plays an important role in determining the nature and direction of crosslinguistic influence. So far the majority of studies in BFLA involve Indo-European language pairs which represent a limited sample of the possible language combinations in terms of global linguistic diversity. The diversity of language pairs in bilingual acquisition offers new windows into what the possibilities are in development. BFLA will be better understood when investigated against a rich background of linguistic diversity, extending the database to typologically unrelated languages with very different structures. For example, properties of Chinese such as null arguments, word order in relative clauses and wh-questions raise new possibilities for interaction between a bilingual child’s developing linguistic systems.

A number of influential studies in BFLA have concluded that the child’s two languages do not interact significantly, developing much like their monolingual counterparts. These studies have largely involved European language pairs such as English with Dutch or French with German. Recent studies of the bilingual development of Chinese and English call this picture into question. In this paper, we review findings in Cantonese-English grammatical development showing that core properties of Chinese grammar can be transferred to English, including wh-in situ, null object and prenominal relative clauses. Certain properties of Cantonese are also susceptible to influence from English. In some domains, such as that of verb particle constructions and directional verb complements, bidirectional influence is seen. We discuss possible reasons why interactive development is found in some studies but not in others. Studies of bilingual development involving Chinese languages provide windows for viewing developmental processes and pathways and enriching our theoretical and empirical investigation. These studies also provide unequivocal evidence for crosslinguistic influence in bilingual development.


Prof. Annette de Groot

Annette de Groot is Professor of Experimental Psycholinguistics at the University of Amsterdam. Her work has concentrated on word recognition and the structure of the mental lexicon, the psychology of reading, and bilingualism and multilingualism. Her present research focuses on bilingualism, with a special interest in bilingual word processing and foreign-language vocabulary acquisition. She is the author of Language and Cognition in Bilinguals and Multilinguals: An Introduction, which was recently published by Psychology Press. 

Parallel language activation during bilingual word processing

Annette M. B. de Groot

University of Amsterdam

The results of a substantial body of studies have led some authors to conclude that bilingual word processing is fundamentally language-nonselective in nature. This means that bilinguals, while processing words, cannot switch of the contextually inappropriate language, even not when task performance takes place under unilingual circumstances. In other words, the two languages of bilinguals are always both activated while they perform some word-processing task and the co-activated knowledge structures of the non-target language influence processing.

In the vast majority of the studies that gave rise to the above conclusion that bilingual word processing is language nonselective the words to be responded to (the “targets”) were presented to the participants visually or aurally (instead of having to be generated from internal thought processes, as in word production tasks) and each target was presented in isolation, that is, without being embedded in a context such as a sentence or larger linguistic fragment. Studies of this type have shown, in various ways, that lexical information in the non-target language is generally co-activated with lexical information in the target language.

Still, this type of evidence does not yet warrant the conclusion that bilingual word processing is fundamentally language nonselective. After all, during normal language processing words are never presented in isolation but as part of larger and meaningful linguistic structures. The larger linguistic context of a word may modulate the recognition process, for instance by constraining activation to the contextually relevant language. To legitimately draw the conclusion that bilingual word recognition is fundamentally language-nonselective, evidence of co-activation of lexical information in the contextually inappropriate language should therefore be obtained from experiments that present the critical words in natural linguistic units such as sentences.

In addition, evidence of language-nonselective word recognition as obtained in both in-context and out-of-context experiments would still let in the possibility that only word recognition, not word production, is fundamentally language-nonselective. In word production the speaker is not driven by bottom-up information (as the reader and listener are) but intentionally chooses the target language. It is therefore possible that the speaker can exert some control over the memory representations that are activated during speech production (e.g., Costa & Santesteban, 2004).

In fact, the present question regarding the language-(non)-selective nature of bilingual word processing has also been addressed in a couple of experiments that examined bilingual word production out-of-context and in a few that examined bilingual word recognition in sentence context. Furthermore, in our own laboratory we recently ran what we believe to be the first set of experiments that examined the present question by looking at bilingual word production in sentence context (Starreveld, De Groot, Rossmark, & Van Hell, submitted). In my talk I will review the evidence from these four types of studies on bilingual word processing – those on word recognition in context and out of context, and those on word production, again in and out of context – and discuss a few variables that appear to constrain the language-nonselective nature of bilingual word processing. In addition I will briefly present some views on how bilinguals, despite their relatively “noisy” language system, manage to keep their languages separate.